呼吁各国批准加强保护经济、社会与文化权利的最新文书

日内瓦(2013年5月8日)——联合国人权专家组今天敦促世界各国政府批准一份重要的国际文书,该文书允许被剥夺经济、社会与文化权利的个人与群体直接向联合国专家委员会提交投诉。

目前已有十个国家率先批准了刚刚生效的《经济、社会及文化权利国际公约任择议定书》,他们分别是:阿根廷、玻利维亚、波斯尼亚与黑塞哥维那、厄瓜多尔、萨尔瓦多、蒙古、葡萄牙、斯洛文尼亚、西班牙与乌拉圭,这些国家组成了一个“争取社会正义俱乐部”。

专家们表示:“这一新程序赋予个人与团体就食物、水和卫生设施、健康、教育、住房、工作与社会保障等权利诉诸联合国经济、社会与文化权利委员会的权利,无论其国籍或移民状态。”

联合国独立专家组强调,该任择议定书代表了“保护和实现经济、社会与文化权利的重要步骤,还是对它们与公民与政治权利同等重要、从根本上相互关联、相互依存的强烈肯定。”

专家们补充道:这个新机制为打击所谓的“紧缩措施”中所包含的倒退问题提供了希望。并表示:“这种倒退不符合《经济、社会及文化权利国际公约》第五条要求。”

专家们指出:“判例法是活的法律,它可以为个人受害者提供具体的姓名与形象。它是动态且面向未来的,并可以创造出有三重作用的先例:在特定情况下提供合适的补救措施、使规则具体化以便于公务人员的理解和国内法庭的执行,最终有助于防止犯法。”

专家们表示:“‘争取社会正义俱乐部’的成员数量一定会增长的,就像《公民及政治权利国际公约》任择议定书的情况一样, 后者自1976年生效以来已授权人权委员会记录并审阅了数千个案件,促成了案例法的通过与对受害者的具体补救措施。”

联合国独立专家组总结道:“我们敦促世界各国政府加入这个‘争取社会正义俱乐部’,并号召人权维护者、国家人权机构和全体民间社会一道努力宣传这项新的请愿程序,以促使各国批准《经济、社会及文化权利国际公约任择议定书》,最终实现普遍参与。”

专家组: Raquel ROLNIK, Special Rapporteur on adequate housing as a component of the right to an adequate standard of living, and on the right to non-discrimination in this context; Farida SHAHEED, Special Rapporteur in the field of cultural rights; Alfred de ZAYAS, Independent expert on the promotion of a democratic and equitable international order; Kishore SINGH, Special Rapporteur on the right to education; Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances; Christoph HEYNS, Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions; Olivier De SCHUTTER, Special Rapporteur on the right to food; Cephas LUMINA, Independent Expert on the effects of foreign debt and other related international financial obligations of States on the full enjoyment of all human rights, particularly economic, social and cultural rights; Maina KIAI, Special Rapporteur on the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association Anand GROVER, Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health; Margaret SEKAGGYA, Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders; François CRÉPEAU, Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants; Rita IZSÁK, Independent Expert on minority issues; Pablo De GREIFF, Special Rapporteur on the promotion of truth, justice, reparation and guarantees of non-recurrence; Gulnara SHAHINIAN, Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of slavery, including its causes and its consequences; Ben EMMERSON, Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights while countering terrorism Catarina de ALBUQUERQUE, Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation. Learn more: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/SP/Pages/Themes.aspx

(*)点击查看任择议定书:http://www.un.org/Docs/journal/asp/ws.asp?m=A/RES/63/117

任择议定书暂行议事规则全文请参见:http://www.ohchr.org/en/hrbodies/cescr/pages/cescrindex.aspx

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